Biomechanics is the application of mechanical engineering and physics principles to the human body. Specifically, biomechanical analyses are performed to study the effect of forces on the tissues of the body and the resulting body and tissue movements. Injury Biomechanics is the study of the cause or mechanism of injuries, determined by examining the forces and movements required to damage the bodily structures. Biomechanical engineers are primarily concerned with the mechanical factors leading up to an injury while other practitioners, such as physicians, are generally involved with the diagnosis, management, and treatment following an injury. In biomechanics, scientific and engineering principles and data are used to identify the cause of injuries, rather than anecdotal reports and patient histories. Biomechanical analyses often incorporate kinematic (the study of the motion of objects) and kinetic (the study of the forces that produce motions) analyses of humans. Occupant Kinematics, the study of vehicular occupant movements during an accident, may be performed in the course of a biomechanical assessment.
Accident Reconstruction is the systematic process of evaluating evidence associated with a particular incident while applying physics and engineering principles to understand how and why the incident occurred. Accident reconstruction is performed to evaluate sequences of events, the likelihood of various scenarios, the effects of human and other inputs, and the effect of design changes. Often, an accident reconstruction will be conducted to determine how an incident could have been prevented or its consequences mitigated. Accident reconstruction is frequently performed to analyze vehicular accidents, but accident reconstruction principles are applicable in a wide variety of private, commercial, and industrial environments.
Design is a process in which a need is filled by the production of a tangible product. Many design parameters must be considered and evaluated to successfully develop a product. Throughout the design process many aspects of a design must be considered, including technical feasibility, function, performance, utility, reliability, maintainability, safety, costs, ergonomics, aesthetics and environmental impact. The final form of a product is a manifestation of the many trade-offs made in consideration of the numerous aspects of the design. Considering the evaluations and trade-offs made as well as the reasoning behind them is Design Analysis.